API Reference

Communicators

chainermn.create_communicator(communicator_name='hierarchical', mpi_comm=None, allreduce_grad_dtype=None, batched_copy=False)

Create a ChainerMN communicator.

Different communicators provide different approaches of communication, so they have different performance charasteristics. The default communicator hierarchical is expected to generally perform well on a variety of environments, so one need not to change communicators in most cases. However, choosing proper communicator may give better performance. The following communicators are available.

Name CPU GPU NCCL Recommended Use Cases
pure_nccl   OK Required (>= v2) pure_nccl is recommended when NCCL2 is available in the environment.
hierarchical   OK Required Each node has a single NIC or HCA
two_dimensional   OK Required Each node has multiple NICs or HCAs
single_node   OK Required Single node with multiple GPUs
flat   OK   N/A
naive OK OK   Testing on CPU mode
Parameters:
  • communicator_name – The name of communicator (naive, flat, hierarchical, two_dimensional, pure_nccl, or single_node)
  • mpi_comm – MPI4py communicator
  • allreduce_grad_dtype – Data type of gradient used in All-Reduce. If None, the dtype of a model is used.
Returns:

ChainerMN communicator that implements methods defined in chainermn.CommunicatorBase

class chainermn.CommunicatorBase

Interface definition of all communicators.

All communicators that have compatible set of methods with this class is supposed to work in ChainerMN’s parallel computation implementation. The methods are named after MPI functions, such as bcast() came from MPI_Bcast().

There are two types of methods: one that treats Python objects have _obj suffix. The other has methods without any suffix and it handles ndarray and arrays filled with scaler values. So the number of methods would be

[send, recv, bcast, gather, allreduce] * [ '_obj', '']

(with single exception alltoall, allreduce_grad, split and bcast_data so far). Also methods are supposed to be written in this order. All those methods must be implemented in its implementation class, or otherwise it cannot be instantiated in runtime.

Note

As most implementation of _obj-sufficed methods involves Python object pickling and unpickling, there is an implicit size limit.

TODO(kuenishi): as of now no implementation class actually has allreduce method.

allreduce(data)

Allreduce operation among processes

Processes one of several aggregation operations using all data from all processes and returns the result of the aggregation to all processes.

TODO(kuenishi): add op argument once we find a use case for operations other than ‘SUM’.

Parameters:data (ndarray) – the data to aggregate among all nodes.
Returns:Sum of all data from all processes.
allreduce_grad(model)

Works as same as allreduce_obj but for Chainer model gradients

Note

this only supports SUM same as allreduce_obj.

allreduce_obj(obj)

Apply a reduce operation to all objects and spread the result.

For example of integers and summation, equivalent local code is:

>>> from functools import reduce
>>> reduce(lambda x, y: x + y, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
15

The only operation currently supported is summation.

TODO(kuenishi): support other operations such as ‘MAX’, ‘MIN’ and ‘PROD’ with op argument once we need any of them.

Parameters:obj – An arbitrary object to apply reduce operation. Must have corresponding operation method e.g. __plus__().
Returns:The result of the operation applied to all objects.
alltoall(xs)

All-to-all implementation for ndarray

Parameters:xs (tuple of numpy/cupy array) –
Returns:Received arrays. The length of tuple equals to the communicator size.
Return type:ys (tuple of numpy/cupy array)
bcast(data, max_buf_len=None, root=0)

Broadcasts an ndarray from root process to all processes

Parameters:
  • data (numpy/cupy array) – for root process, the data to broadcast. For non-root processes, this argument is ignored.
  • max_buf_len (int) – Length of send buffer.
  • root (int) – the process who has the data to broadcast.
Returns:

The data sent from root process

Return type:

ys (numpy/cupy array)

bcast_data(model)

Broadcast Chainer model parameter data

bcast_obj(obj, max_buf_len=None, root=0)

Broadcasts an arbitrary object from root to all non-root processes.

Parameters:
  • obj – arbitrary object to broadcast to all other non-root processes. Will be ignored at all non-root processes.
  • max_buf_len (int) – max length of the send buffer
  • root (int) – rank of the root processes who sends an object
Returns:

an object sent from the root process.

gather(data, root=0)

Gathers an ndarray from all processes to root process

Parameters:
  • data (ndarray, or scaler) – for root process this is ignored. For For non-root processes, the data to send to root process.
  • root (int) – rank of the process who receives the data.
Returns:

For root process, the ndarray sent from non-root processes. For non-root processes, what?

gather_obj(obj, root=0)

Gathers arbitrary objects from all non-root processes to root process.

Parameters:
  • obj – arbtrary object to send to root process. Root process will receive this argument included in returned list.
  • root (int) – rank of the root node who receives all objects.
Returns:

A list of objects sent from all processes.

TODO(kuenishi): make sure the ordering of objects in the returned list.

inter_rank

The rank of this node in the cluster.

inter_size

Number of nodes that participates the cluster.

intra_rank

Intra rank (process id in the machine) of this process.

rank

Rank (process id in the cluster) of this process in integer.

recv(source, tag)

Receives an ndarray from source.

To receive the message, sender must send the data.

Parameters:
  • source (int) – Rank of the source process
  • tag (int) – The tag to specifically receive the message
Returns:

The data sent from source process

recv_obj(source, tag)

Receives an arbitrary Python object from source process with a tag.

Parameters:
  • source (int) – Rank number of sender process, to selectively receive the object.
  • tag – tag to identify the message.
Returns:

an object sent from the source by send_obj.

send(data, dest, tag)

Sends an ndarray to destination

Receiver must invoke recv() to wait for the message.

Parameters:
  • data – data to be sent (tuple, list or raw numpy/cupy array)
  • dest (int) – Rank of the destination process
  • tag (int) – The tag to identify the message
send_obj(obj, dest, tag)

Sends an arbitrary Python object to destination with a tag.

Parameters:
  • obj – Arbitrary object to send to receiver.
  • dest (int) – Rank number of receiver process (destination).
  • tag – tag to identify the message.
size

Number of processes of the cluster.

split(color, key)

A function anologous to MPI_Comm_Split .

This method splits the inter MPI commnicator and return a wrapped ChainerMN communicator.

Parameters:
  • color (int) – Index of new group. The process with the same color will be assigned to the same group.
  • key (int) – Control of rank assignment. The process will be assigned a rank in the new group ordered by the value of key. If you do not care of the rank, you can just simply specify the original rank.
Returns:

CommunicatorBase

Optimizers and Evaluators

chainermn.create_multi_node_optimizer(actual_optimizer, communicator, double_buffering=False)

Create a multi node optimizer from a Chainer optimizer.

Parameters:
  • actual_optimizer – Chainer optimizer (e.g., chainer.optimizers.Adam).
  • communicator – ChainerMN communicator.
  • double_buffering – If True, all-reduce and other processing (such as forward and backward) are overlapped using double buffering. There are cases where accuracy is affected because the gradients of the previous iteration are used for update. This flag is supported by PureNcclCommunicator only.
Returns:

The multi node optimizer based on actual_optimizer.

chainermn.create_multi_node_evaluator(actual_evaluator, communicator)

Create a multi node evaluator from a normal evaluator.

Actually this method patches the evaluator to work in multi node environment. This method adds several hidden attributes starting with _mn_ prefix.

Parameters:
  • actual_evaluator – evaluator to be patched (e.g., chainer.training.extensions.Evaluator)
  • communicator – ChainerMN communicator
Returns:

The multi-node patched actual_evaluator.

Note

After patched, original evaluator does not work correctly in non-MPI environment.

Dataset Utilities

chainermn.scatter_dataset(dataset, comm, root=0, shuffle=False, seed=None, max_buf_len=268435456)

Scatter the given dataset to the workers in the communicator.

The dataset of worker 0 (i.e., the worker whose comm.rank is 0) is scattered to all workers. The given dataset of other workers are ignored. The dataset is split to sub datasets of almost equal sizes and scattered to workers. To create a sub dataset, chainer.datasets.SubDataset is used.

Parameters:
  • dataset – A dataset (e.g., list, numpy.ndarray, chainer.datasets.TupleDataset, …).
  • comm – ChainerMN communicator or MPI4py communicator.
  • shuffle (bool) – If True, the order of examples is shuffled before being scattered.
  • root (int) – The root process of the scatter operation.
  • seed (int) – Seed the generator used for the permutation of indexes. If an integer being convertible to 32 bit unsigned integers is specified, it is guaranteed that each sample in the given dataset always belongs to a specific subset. If None, the permutation is changed randomly.
  • max_buf_len (int) – Max buffer size to be used at broadcasting binaries. Must not be larger than 2147483647.
Returns:

Scattered dataset.

chainermn.datasets.create_empty_dataset(dataset)

Creates an empty dataset for models with no inputs and outputs.

This function generates an empty dataset, i.e., __getitem__() only returns None. Its dataset is compatible with the original one. Such datasets used for models which do not take any inputs, neither return any outputs. We expect models, e.g., whose forward() is starting with chainermn.functions.recv() and ending with chainermn.functions.send().

Parameters:dataset – Dataset to convert.
Returns:Dataset consists of only patterns in the original one.
Return type:TransformDataset

Functions

chainermn.functions.send(x, communicator, rank, tag=0)

Send elements to target process.

This function returns a dummy variable only holding the computational graph. If backward() is invoked by this dummy variable, it will try to receive gradients from the target process and send them back to the parent nodes.

Parameters:
  • x (Variable) – Variable holding a matrix which you would like to send.
  • communicator (chainer.communicators.CommunicatorBase) – ChainerMN communicator.
  • rank (int) – Target process specifier.
  • tag (int) – Optional message ID (MPI feature).
Returns:

A dummy variable with no actual data, only holding the computational graph. Please refer chainermn.functions.pseudo_connect for detail.

Return type:

Variable

chainermn.functions.recv(communicator, rank, delegate_variable=None, tag=0, force_tuple=False)

Receive elements from target process.

This function returns data received from target process. If backward() is invoked, it will try to send gradients to the target process. The received array will be on the current CUDA device if the corresponding send() is invoked with arrays on GPU. Please be aware that the current CUDA device is intended one. (https://docs-cupy.chainer.org/en/stable/tutorial/basic.html#current-device)

Note

If you define non-connected computational graph on one process, you have to use delegate_variable to specify the output of previous computational graph component. Otherwise backward() does not work well. Please refer chainermn.functions.pseudo_connect for detail.

Parameters:
  • communicator (chainer.communicators.CommunicatorBase) – ChainerMN communicator.
  • rank (int) – Target process specifier.
  • delegate_variable (chainer.Variable) – Pointer to the other non-connected component.
  • tag (int) – Optional message ID (MPI feature).
  • force_tuple (bool) – If False (the default) a Variable will be returned when the number of outputs is one. Otherwise, this method returns a tuple even when the number of outputs is one.
Returns:

Data received from target process. If backward() is invoked by this variable, it will send gradients to the target process.

Return type:

Variable

chainermn.functions.pseudo_connect(delegate_variable, *actual_variables)

Connect independent connected graph component.

This function is implemented to return received arguments directly, except the first delegate_variable. In backward computation, it returns received gradients directly, adding a zero grad corresponding to delegate_variable. The detail of delegate_variable is described in the following notes.

Note

In model-parallel framework, models on each process might have many non-connected components. Here we call a given graph non-connected when multiple inter-process communications are needed for its computation. For example, consider the following example:

class ConnectedGraph(chainermn.MultiNodeChainList):

    def __init__(self, comm):
        super(ConnectedGraph, self).__init__(comm)
        self.add_link(ConnectedGraphSub(), rank_in=3, rank_out=1)

This model receives inputs from rank=3 process and sends its outputs to rank=1 process. The entire graph can be seen as one connected component ConnectedGraphSub. Please refer the documentation of MultiNodeChainList for detail.

On the other hand, see the next example:

class NonConnectedGraph(chainermn.MultiNodeChainList):

    def __init__(self, comm):
        super(NonConnectedGraph, self).__init__(comm)
        self.add_link(NonConnectedGraphSubA(), rank_in=3, rank_out=1)
        self.add_link(NonConnectedGraphSubB(), rank_in=1, rank_out=2)

This model consists of two components: at first, NonConnectedGraphSubA receives inputs from rank=3 process and sends its outputs to rank=1 process, and then NonConnectedGraphSubB receives inputs from rank=1 process and sends its outputs to rank=2 process. Here multiple inter-process communications are invoked between NonConnectedGraphSubA and NonConnectedGraphSubB, so it is regarded as non-connected.

Such kind of non-connected models can be problematic in backward computation. Chainer traces back the computational graph from the output variable, however naive implementation of chainermn.functions.recv does not take any inputs rather receives inputs by MPI_Recv, where backward path vanishes.

To prevent this, dummy variables what we call delegate_variable are used. In principle, chainermn.functions.send does not return any outputs because it sends data to the other process by MPI_Send. However, chainermn.functions.send returns a dummy / empty variable in our implementation, which is called delegate_variable. This variable does not hold any data, just used for retaining backward computation path. We can guarantee the backward computation just by putting delegate_variable to the next chainermn.functions.recv (chainermn.functions.recv has an optional argument to receive delegate_variable).

Note

In some cases the intermediate graph component returns model outputs. See the next example:

class NonConnectedGraph2(chainermn.MultiNodeChainList):

    def __init__(self, comm):
        super(NonConnectedGraph2, self).__init__(comm)
        self.add_link(NonConnectedGraphSubA(), rank_in=1, rank_out=None)
        self.add_link(NonConnectedGraphSubB(), rank_in=None, rank_out=1)

This model first receives inputs from rank=1 process and make model outputs (specified by rank_out=None) in NonConnectedGraphSubA. Then using model inputs (specified by rank_in=None), NonConnectedGraphSubB sends its outputs to rank=1 process. Since MultiNodeChainList.__call__ returns outputs of the last component (in this case, outputs of NonConnectedGraphSubB), naive implementation cannot output the returned value of NonConnectedGraphSubA as the model outputs. In this case, pseudo_connect should be used.

pseudo_connect takes two arguments. The first one delegate_variable is what we explained in above note. In this case, returned value of NonConnectedGraphSubB corresponds to delegate_variable. The second one actual_variables is “what we want delegate_variable to imitate”. In NonConnectedGraph2, we obtain returned value of NonConnectedGraphSubB as the model outputs, but what we actually want is returned value of NonConnectedGraphSubA. At the same time we want to trace back this resulted variable in backward computation. Using pseudo_connect, we can make a variable whose data is the same as the returned value of NonConnectedGraphSubA, and which traces back NonConnectedGraphSubB first.

pseudo_connect should also be used in some pathological cases, for example, where multiple chainermn.functions.send occurs sequentially.

Parameters:
  • delegate_variable (chainer.Variable) – Pointer to the previous non-connected graph component.
  • actual_variables (tuple of chainer.Variable) – Actual values which delegate_variable imitate.
Returns:

A variable with the given values combined with delegating variable.

Return type:

Variable

chainermn.functions.bcast(comm, x, root=0)

Differentiable broadcast communication between workers.

This function invokes broadcast communications among processes specified by the communicator. Backward will be invoked as well as the ordinary chainer functions, where gradients are gathered to the root process and summed up.

The received array will be on the current CUDA device if x on the invoking process is on GPU. Please be aware that the current CUDA device is intended one. (https://docs-cupy.chainer.org/en/stable/tutorial/basic.html#current-device)

Parameters:
  • comm – ChainerMN communicator.
  • x (chainer.Variable) – Variable to be sent.
Returns:

Broadcasted variable.

Return type:

y (chainer.Variable)

chainermn.functions.gather(comm, x, root=0)

Differentiable gather communication between workers.

This function invokes gather communications among processes specified by the communicator. Backward will be invoked as well as the ordinary chainer functions, where gradients are scattered from the root process to each slave.

The received array will be on the current CUDA device if x on the root process is on GPU. Please be aware that the current CUDA device is intended one. (https://docs-cupy.chainer.org/en/stable/tutorial/basic.html#current-device)

Parameters:
  • comm – ChainerMN communicator.
  • x (chainer.Variable) – Variable to be sent.
Returns:

Gathered variables. None for slaves.

Return type:

ys (chainer.Variable)

chainermn.functions.scatter(comm, xs, root=0)

Differentiable scatter communication between workers.

This function invokes scatter communications among processes specified by the communicator. Backward will be invoked as well as the ordinary chainer functions, where gradients are gathered to the root process.

The received array will be on the current CUDA device if xs on the root process is on GPU. Please be aware that the current CUDA device is intended one. (https://docs-cupy.chainer.org/en/stable/tutorial/basic.html#current-device)

Parameters:
  • comm – ChainerMN communicator.
  • xs (list of chainer.Variable) – Variables to be scattered for master process. None for slave process.
Returns:

Scattered variable.

Return type:

y (chainer.Variable)

chainermn.functions.alltoall(comm, xs)

Differentiable all-to-all communication between workers.

This function invokes all-to-all communications among processes specified by the communicator. Backward will be invoked as well as the ordinary chainer functions, just passing input gradients back. Unlike point-to-point communication such as chainermn.functions.send and chainermn.functions.recv, users need not to care about delegate variables, since backward() will not be invoked until all gradients from output direction arrive. Please refer to chainermn.functions.pseudo_connect about the detail of delegate variables.

The received array will be on the current CUDA device on the invoking process if xs is on GPU. Please be aware that the current CUDA device is intended one. (https://docs-cupy.chainer.org/en/stable/tutorial/basic.html#current-device)

Parameters:
  • comm – ChainerMN communicator.
  • xs (list of chainer.Variables) – Variables to send.
Returns:

Received variables.

Return type:

ys (list of chainer.Variables)

chainermn.functions.allgather(comm, x)

Differentiable all-gather communication between workers.

This function invokes gather communications among processes specified by the communicator. Backward will be invoked as well as the ordinary chainer functions, where gradients are reduced to each process.

The received array will be on the current CUDA device on the invoking process if x is on GPU. Please be aware that the current CUDA device is intended one. (https://docs-cupy.chainer.org/en/stable/tutorial/basic.html#current-device)

Parameters:
  • comm – ChainerMN communicator.
  • x (chainer.Variables) – Variables to send.
Returns:

Received variables.

Return type:

ys (list of chainer.Variables)

Iterators

chainermn.iterators.create_multi_node_iterator(actual_iterator, communicator, rank_master=0)

Create a multi node iterator from a Chainer iterator.

This iterator shares the same batches on multiple processes, simply broadcasting batches from master process to slave processes in each iteration. Master process obtains batches from actual_iterator, which you can specify any Chainer iterator (e.g. chainer.iterators.SerialIterator).

Here is an example situation. When we train a sequence-to-sequence model, where the encoder and the decoder is located on two different processes, we want to share the same batches on each process, thus inputs for the encoder and output teacher signals for the decoder become consistent.

In order to use the multi node iterator, first create the iterator from Chainer iterator and ChainerMN communicator:

iterator = chainermn.iterators.create_multi_node_iterator(
    chainer.iterators.SerialIterator(
        dataset, batch_size, shuffle=True),
    communicator)

Then you can use it as the ordinary Chainer iterator:

updater = chainer.training.StandardUpdater(iterator, optimizer)
trainer = training.Trainer(updater)
trainer.run()

Since this iterator shares batches through network in each iteration, communication might be large. If you train your model-parallel network on extremely large dataset, you can also consider to use chainermn.iterators.create_synchronized_iterator.

Current multi node iterator supports numpy.float32 or tuple of numpy.float32 as the data type of the batch element.

Note

create_multi_node_iterator and serialize of created iterators must be called at the same time by master and slaves, unless it falls into deadlock because they synchronize internal states of iterators.

Parameters:
  • actual_iterator – Chainer iterator (chainer.iterators.SerialIterator and chainer.iterators.MultiprocessIterator are supported).
  • communicator – ChainerMN communicator.
  • rank_master – process rank to be master.
Returns:

The master-slave iterator based on actual_iterator.

Trainer extensions

class chainermn.extensions.AllreducePersistent(model, comm)

Chainer extension to averagize persistents over workers.

When called, this extension invokes all-reduce communication among workers to compute averages of persistent variables in the model. Persistent variables are updated to the averages. Currently, we ignore integer persistent variables, and only float persistent variables are handled.

This extension is mainly to improve the running mean and variance of BatchNormalization by increasing the effective number of examples. We do not need to call this frequently; call just before storing or evaluating the model.

Parameters:
  • model (chainer.link.Link) – Target link object.
  • comm (ChainerMN communicator) – communicator to compute averages.
chainermn.create_multi_node_checkpointer(name, comm, cp_interval=5, gc_interval=5, path=None)

Create multi-node checkpointer object

Generational snapshot extension to allow fault tolerance; It keeps several old snapshots to rollback synchronized snapshot at each MPI process. Snapshot files are identified as ‘<name>.<rank>.<iteration>’.

  • <name> … identifier of the run where snapshot is kept for
  • <rank> … which process owned the model
  • <iteration> … number of iteration.

This extension keeps several files for each execution and allows users to resume the whole job at the latest snapshots of each MPI process, and the iteration where all snapshots agrees.

As this object is a usual Chainer extension, users can just create this object and pass to the trainer as an extension:

checkpointer = create_multi_node_checkpointer(name=run_id, comm=comm)
trainer.extend(checkpointer, trigger=(25, 'iteration'))

To run recovery at startup, before first iteration, run

checkpointer.maybe_load(trainer, optimizer)

before trainer.run() . If nothing is recovered (i.e. no snapshot found), trainer.updater.iteration will remain 0 . Otherwise it will have the value of snapshot and the training will resume from that iteration. optimizer is optional but this will let multi node optimizer avoid initial broadcast when all snapshot data among nodes are all in sync.

Note

Make sure that checkpointer.maybe_load is called after all extensions with states, such as ExponentialShift, set to the trainer.

After training finished without errors all those temporary checkpoints will be cleaned up at all nodes.

Another example to use checkpointer without trainer would be:

checkpointer = create_multi_node_checkpointer(name=run_id, comm=comm)
checkpointer.maybe_load(obj_you_want_to_snap, optimizer)

while True: ## Training loop
    ...
    updater.update()
    ...
    checkpointer.save(obj_you_want_to_snap)  # Make a checkpoint
Parameters:
  • name (str) – unique id of the run
  • comm – communicater in ChainerMN
  • cp_interval (int) – minimum number of checkpoints to preserve
  • gc_interval (int) – interval to collect non-preserved checkpoints