Step-by-Step Troubleshooting

This section is a step-by-step troubleshooting guide for ChainerMN. Please follow these steps to identify and fix your problem.

We assume that you are using Linux or another Unix-like environment.

Single-node environment

Basic MPI installation

Although ChainerMN stands for “Chainer MultiNode,” it is good to start from single-node execution. First of all, you need MPI. If MPI is correctly installed, you will see the mpicc and mpiexec commands in your PATH.

Below is an example of the output from Mvapich on Linux.:

$ which mpicc
/usr/local/bin/mpicc

$ mpicc -show
gcc -I/usr/local/include ...(snip)... -lmpi

$ which mpiexec
/usr/local/bin/mpiexec

$ mpiexec --version
HYDRA build details:
Version:                                 3.1.4
Release Date:                            Wed Sep  7 14:33:43 EDT 2016
CC:                              gcc
CXX:                             g++
F77:
F90:
Configure options:  (snip)
Process Manager:                         pmi
Launchers available:                     ssh rsh fork slurm ll lsf sge manual persist
Topology libraries available:            hwloc
Resource management kernels available:   user slurm ll lsf sge pbs cobalt
Checkpointing libraries available:
Demux engines available:                 poll select

If you see any error in above commands, please go back to the CUDA-Aware MPI and check your MPI installation.

Check what MPI you are using

In CUDA-Aware MPI, we mention both of Open MPI and Mvapich. If the MPI is provided by the system administrator and you are not really sure which MPI you are using, check the output of mpiexec –version.

  • If the output contains HYDRA, then it’s MVAPICH (or possibly MPICH).

  • If the output contains OpenRTE, then it’s Open MPI.

However, in such a case, you should make sure that the MPI is CUDA-aware, as mentioned below. We recommend to build your own MPI.

Check if MPI is CUDA-aware

Your MPI must be configured as CUDA-aware. You can use the following C program to check it.

/* check_cuda_aware.c */
#include <assert.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <mpi.h>
#include <cuda_runtime.h>

#define CUDA_CALL(expr) do {                  \
  cudaError_t err;                            \
  err = expr;                                 \
  assert(err == cudaSuccess);                 \
} while(0)

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
  int rank, size;

  MPI_Init(&argc, &argv);
  MPI_Comm_rank(MPI_COMM_WORLD, &rank);
  MPI_Comm_size(MPI_COMM_WORLD, &size);

  int *sendbuf_d = NULL;
  int *recvbuf_d = NULL;

  CUDA_CALL(cudaMalloc((void**)&sendbuf_d, sizeof(int)));
  CUDA_CALL(cudaMalloc((void**)&recvbuf_d, sizeof(int)));
  CUDA_CALL(cudaMemcpy(sendbuf_d, &rank, sizeof(int), cudaMemcpyDefault));

  MPI_Reduce(sendbuf_d, recvbuf_d, 1, MPI_INT, MPI_SUM, 0, MPI_COMM_WORLD);

  if (rank == 0) {
    int sum = -1;
    CUDA_CALL(cudaMemcpy(&sum, recvbuf_d, sizeof(int), cudaMemcpyDefault));
    if (sum == (size-1) * size / 2) {
      printf("OK.\n");
    } else {
      printf("Error.\n");
    }
  }

  cudaFree(sendbuf_d);
  cudaFree(recvbuf_d);

  MPI_Finalize();
}

Save the code to a file named check_cuda_aware.c. You can compile and run it with the following command.:

$ export MPICH_CC=nvcc  # if you use Mvapich
$ export OMPI_CC=nvcc   # if you use Open MPI
$ $(mpicc -show check_cuda_aware.c -arch sm_53 | sed -e 's/-Wl,/-Xlinker /g' | sed -e 's/-pthread/-Xcompiler -pthread/')
$ ./a.out
OK.

If the proglam prints OK., your MPI is correctly configured.

Check mpi4py

Next, let’s check that mpi4py is correctly installed. You can use the following script to check it:

# coding: utf-8
import os
from mpi4py import MPI

comm = MPI.COMM_WORLD
size = comm.Get_size()
rank = comm.Get_rank()

for i in range(size):
  if i == rank:
    print("{} {}".format(os.uname()[1], i))
  comm.Barrier()

Save the script into a file named check_mpi4py.py and run it. The output from the script should look like this.:

$ mpiexec -np 4 python check_mpi4py.py
host00 0
host00 1
host00 2
host00 3

The script prints hostnames and ranks (process id in MPI) from each MPI process in a sequential manner. host00 is the host name of the machine your are running the process. If you get an output like below, it indicates something is wrong with your installation.:

# Wrong output !
$ mpiexec -n 4 python check_mpi4py.py
host00 0
host00 0
host00 0
host00 0

A common problem is that the mpicc used to build mpi4py and mpiexec used to run the script are from different MPI installations.

Finally, run pytest to check the single-node configuration is ready.:

$ git clone [email protected]:chainer/chainer.git
Cloning into 'chainer'...
remote: Enumerating objects: 7, done.
remote: Counting objects: 100% (7/7), done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (7/7), done.
remote: Total 168242 (delta 1), reused 2 (delta 0), pack-reused 168235
Receiving objects: 100% (168242/168242), 41.15 MiB | 1.65 MiB/s, done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (123696/123696), done.
Checking connectivity... done.
$ cd chainer/
$ pytest tests/chainermn_tests/
......S.S...S.S...S.S...S.S.........SS
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Ran 38 tests in 63.083s

OK (SKIP=10)

Check if NCCL is enabled in CuPy

CuPy requires NCCL to be enabled. You can check it with the following command.:

$ python -c 'from cupy.cuda import nccl'

If you get an output like below, NCCL is not enabled in CuPy. Please check the installation guide of CuPy.:

Traceback (most recent call last):

 File "<string>", line 1, in <module>

ImportError: cannot import name 'nccl'

Multi-node environment

Check SSH connection and environment variables

To use ChainerMN on multiple hosts, you need to connect to computing hosts, including the one you are currently logged into, via ssh without password authentication (and preferably without username).:

$ ssh host00 'hostname'
host00   # without hitting the password

$ ssh host01 'hostname'
host01   # without hitting the password

...

You may get a message like this:

The authenticity of host 'host01 (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx)' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:haGUMcCeC5A8lGh1lpjpwL5dF4xCglZArhhxxxxxxxxx.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?

This message appears when you log in a host for the first time. Just type yes and the message won’t appear again. You need to repeat this process on all computing hosts.

Also, you need to pay attention to the environment variables on remote hosts. The MPI runtime connects to the remote hosts in non-interactive mode, and environment variables may differ from your interactive login sessions.:

$ ssh host00 'env' | grep LD_LIBRARY_PATH
# Check the values and compare it to the local value.

$ ssh host01 'env' | grep LD_LIBRARY_PATH
# Check the values and compare it to the local value.

...

In particular, check the following variables, which are critical to executing MPI programs:

  • PATH

  • LD_LIBRARY_PATH

  • MV2_USE_CUDA (if you use MVAPICH)

  • MV2_SMP_USE_CMA (if you use MVAPICH)

Besides, you need to make sure the same mpiexec binary is used to run MPI programs.:

$ ssh host00 'which mpiexec'
/usr/local/bin/mpiexec

$ ssh host01 'which mpiexec'
/usr/local/bin/mpiexec

All the commands should give the same mpiexec binary path.

Program files and data

When you run MPI programs, all hosts must have the same Python binary and script files in the same path. First, check that the python binary and version are identical among hosts. Be careful if you are using pyenv or Anaconda.:

$ ssh host00 'which python; python --version'
/home/username/.pyenv/shims/python
Python 3.6.0 :: Anaconda 4.3.1 (64-bit)

$ ssh host01 'which python'
/home/username/.pyenv/shims/python
Python 3.6.0 :: Anaconda 4.3.1 (64-bit)

...

Also, the script file (and possibly data files) must be in the same path on each host.

$ ls yourscript.py  # in the current directory
yourscript.py

$ ssh host00 "ls $PWD/yourscript.py"
/home/username/your/dir/yourscript.py

$ ssh host01 "ls $PWD/yourscript.py"
/home/username/your/dir/yourscript.py

...

If you are using NFS, everything should be okay. If not, you need to transfer all the necessary files manually.

In particular, when you run the ImageNet example in ChainerMN repository, all data files must be available on all computing hosts.

hostfile

The next step is to create a hostfile. A hostfile is a list of hosts on which MPI processes run.:

$ vi hostfile
$ cat hostfile
host00
host01
host02
host03

Then, you can run your MPI program using the hostfile. To check if the MPI processes run over multiple hosts, save the following script to a file and run it via mpiexec:

# print_rank.py
import os

from mpi4py import MPI

comm = MPI.COMM_WORLD
size = comm.Get_size()
rank = comm.Get_rank()

for i in range(size):
  if i == rank:
    print("{} {}".format(os.uname()[1], i))
  comm.Barrier()

If you get an output like below, it is working correctly.:

$ mpiexec -n 4 --hostfile hostfile python print_rank.py
host00 0
host01 1
host02 2
host03 3

If you have multiple GPUs, you may want to run multiple processes on each host. You can modify hostfile and specify the number of processes to run on each host.:

# If you are using Mvapich:
$ cat hostfile
host00:4
host01:4
host02:4
host03:4

# If you are using Open MPI
$ cat hostfile
host00 cpu=4
host01 cpu=4
host02 cpu=4
host03 cpu=4

With this hostfile, try running mpiexec again.:

$ mpiexec -n 8 --hostfile hostfile python print_rank.py
host00 0
host00 1
host00 2
host00 3
host01 4
host01 5
host01 6
host01 7

You will find that the first 4 processes run on host00 and the latter 4 on host01.

You can also specify computing hosts and resource mapping/binding using command line options of mpiexec. Please refer to the MPI manual for the more advanced use of mpiexec command.

If you get runtime error:

If you get the following error messages, please check the specified section of the troubleshooting or installation guide.

[hostxxx:mpi_rank_0][MPIDI_CH3I_SMP_init] CMA is not available. Set MV2_SMP_USE_CMA=0 to disable CMA.
[cli_0]: aborting job:
Fatal error in PMPI_Init_thread:
Other MPI error, error stack:
MPIR_Init_thread(514)....:
MPID_Init(365)...........: channel initialization failed
MPIDI_CH3_Init(404)......:
MPIDI_CH3I_SMP_Init(2132): process_vm_readv: Operation not permitted


===================================================================================
=   BAD TERMINATION OF ONE OF YOUR APPLICATION PROCESSES
=   PID 20327 RUNNING AT hostxxx
=   EXIT CODE: 1
=   CLEANING UP REMAINING PROCESSES
=   YOU CAN IGNORE THE BELOW CLEANUP MESSAGES
===================================================================================

-> Check the value of MV2_SMP_USE_CMA (see CUDA-Aware MPI and Check SSH connection and environment variables).

[hostxx:mpi_rank_0][error_sighandler] Caught error: Segmentation fault (signal 11)

===================================================================================
=   BAD TERMINATION OF ONE OF YOUR APPLICATION PROCESSES
=   PID 20643 RUNNING AT hostxx
=   EXIT CODE: 11
=   CLEANING UP REMAINING PROCESSES
=   YOU CAN IGNORE THE BELOW CLEANUP MESSAGES
===================================================================================
YOUR APPLICATION TERMINATED WITH THE EXIT STRING: Segmentation fault (signal 11)
This typically refers to a problem with your application.
Please see the FAQ page for debugging suggestions

-> Check the value of MV2_USE_CUDA (see CUDA-Aware MPI and Check SSH connection and environment variables)