In the example code of this tutorial, we assume for simplicity that the following symbols are already imported.

import math
import numpy as np
import chainer
from chainer import backend
from chainer import backends
from chainer.backends import cuda
from chainer import Function, FunctionNode, gradient_check, report, training, utils, Variable
from chainer import datasets, initializers, iterators, optimizers, serializers
from chainer import Link, Chain, ChainList
import chainer.functions as F
import chainer.links as L
from chainer.training import extensions

From the previous guide on Creating Models, let’s use the MyChain class:

>>> class MyChain(Chain):
...     def __init__(self):
...         super(MyChain, self).__init__()
...         with self.init_scope():
...             self.l1 = L.Linear(4, 3)
...             self.l2 = L.Linear(3, 2)
...     def forward(self, x):
...         h = self.l1(x)
...         return self.l2(h)

To tune parameters values to minimize loss, etc., we have to optimize them by the Optimizer class. It runs a numerical optimization algorithm on a given link. Many algorithms are implemented in the optimizers module. Here we use the simplest one, called Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD):

>>> model = MyChain()
>>> optimizer = optimizers.SGD().setup(model)

The method setup() prepares for the optimization given a link.

Some parameter/gradient manipulations, e.g. weight decay and gradient clipping, can be done by setting hook functions to the optimizer. Hook functions are called after the gradient computation and right before the actual update of parameters. For example, we can set weight decay regularization by running the next line beforehand:

>>> optimizer.add_hook(chainer.optimizer_hooks.WeightDecay(0.0005))

Of course, you can write your own hook functions. It should be a function or a callable object.

There are two ways to use the optimizer. One is using it via Trainer, which we will see in the following sections. The other way is using it directly. We here review the latter case. To use the optimizer in an automated fashion, see the Trainer guide.

There are two further ways to use the optimizer directly. One is manually computing gradients and then calling the update() method with no arguments. Do not forget to clear the gradients beforehand!

>>> x = np.random.uniform(-1, 1, (2, 4)).astype(np.float32)
>>> model.cleargrads()
>>> # compute gradient here...
>>> loss = F.sum(model(chainer.Variable(x)))
>>> loss.backward()
>>> optimizer.update()

The other way is just passing a loss function to the update() method. In this case, cleargrads() is automatically called by the update method, so the user does not have to call it manually.

>>> def lossfun(arg1, arg2):
...     # calculate loss
...     loss = F.sum(model(arg1 - arg2))
...     return loss

>>> arg1 = np.random.uniform(-1, 1, (2, 4)).astype(np.float32)
>>> arg2 = np.random.uniform(-1, 1, (2, 4)).astype(np.float32)
>>> optimizer.update(lossfun, chainer.Variable(arg1), chainer.Variable(arg2))

See chainer.Optimizer.update() for the full specification.